Greek Immigration and Diaspora in the United States—Its Museum Representation via Tangible and Intangible Material: Organizing the Narrative

Ελληνική Μετανάστευση και Διασπορά στην Αμερική: Οργανώνοντας το Αφήγημα προς Μουσειακή Αναπαράσταση μέσω Υλικών και Άυλων Τεκμηρίων

Yiorgos Anagnostou (YA) and Nikos Poulopoulos (NP)
(Yiorgos Kalogeras contributor)

Γιώργος Αναγνώστου και Νίκος Πουλόπουλος
(με την συμβολή του Γιώργου Καλογερά)


(a) Macrohistory — Historical Periodization Organizing the Narrative

(b) Expressive Domains Across Historical Periods (includes links to corresponding bibliographies and archival resources)

(c) Narratives for each Historical Period and Corresponding Expressive Domains (includes listings of audiovisual and archival material as well as exhibit objects)

We organized the narrative around two intersecting axes, namely
(a) Macrohistory and (b) Greek/American Expressive Domains

(a) Macrohistory

We designate five historical periods (some overlapping) covering the time span between the first wave of Greek mass migration in the United States, in the 1890s, and the present (2017). Each period is defined by several cultural and political events of major importance (social movements, governmental policies and Immigration Acts, national identity paradigms [Americanization; multiculturalism] in the United States and Greece, wars, global developments etc., wars, global developments, etc.], which fundamentally (re)shaped Greek America. [though the 18th and 19th c Greek presence in the United States is not included in this periodization, we recommend its inclusion in future exhibit designs]

The five historical periods are as follows:

• Mass Immigration (1890s–WWI)

Industrialization, mass migration, labor movement, South Omaha anti-Greek riot, Ludlow Massacre, Louis Tikas, interethnic and interracial encounters, regional variations (urban vs rural, Jim Crow vs other America), emerging dual identities. Poverty in Greece, Balkan Wars, World War I.

(NP curator)

• Nativism and Hundred Percent Americanism (post WWI–1920s)

Nativism, racism, Ku Klux Klan, regional variations, severe recession, immigration restrictions/quotas, emergence of new institutional identities, citizenship (AHEPA, GAPA), the Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of North and South America. The end of the “Great Idea,” Greek defeat in the Greek-Turkish war (1919-1922), exchange of populations between Greece and Turkey.

(YA curator)

• Assimilation, Identity, World War II, Cold War (1920s-mid1960s)

The second generation, WWII and Greek ethnic pride, Greek War Relief Association (GWRA), diaspora humanitarian activism, the Marshall Plan, the Truman Doctrine, House Un-American Activities Committee, Cold War, United States–Greece political and military relations. Nazi occupation of Greece, Greek resistance, Greek civil war, Greek/American adoptions.

(NP curator)

• Multiculturalism (1965–present/2017)

Multiculturalism, immigration policy, mass immigration, roots, ethnic revival, Greek cultural visibility and institution building (festivals, parades, films, museums, The Modern Greek Studies Association, Modern Greek Programs, Greek American studies), food and dance culture, Greek Americans–the Greek Orthodox church–and Civil Rights, regional variations, Archbishop Iakovos, Americanization of the church, interethnic marriages, heterogeneity in Greek America. Greek junta, post-junta Greece, the Cyprus issue, mass tourism to Greece, socialism in Greece, adoption of euro, the 2004 Athens Olympics.

(YA curator)

• Globalization and Diaspora (Collapse of the Soviet Union–present/2017)

Intensification of global capitalism, “narratives and practices of return” to Greece, internationalization of higher education (study abroad programs), the transnational turn in Greek American studies, Greek Orthodox Church: Transnationalism and Globalization, the third and fourth generations, the future of Greek America

[2022 addendum: the Greek economic crisis, making Greek diaspora identity at a time of historical homeland crisis, global Greek identity branding, diaspora and the Greek revolution bicentennial, initiatives to establish museums of Greek immigration and diaspora in Greece, interracial solidarities, Black Lives Matter and Greek Americans.]

(YA curator)

(b) Greek/American Expressive Domains

Greek/American Expressive Domains entails eight (interrelated) domains of immigration and diaspora expressions, which all apply to each historical period. For each domain we created a bibliography as well as a list of audiovisual and archival resources.

(1) Διασπορικές και Εθνοτικές εκφράσεις (Diaspora and Ethnic Expressions)

(Bibliography and archival resources, YA curator)

Σχέσεις με την Ελλάδα (συμμετοχή σε πολέμους, φιλανθρωπικός ακτιβισμός, επιστροφή και αφήγηση επιστροφής, τουρισμός, πολιτικό λόμπι)· παραγωγή του ελληνικού πολιτισμού (εθνοτικά [και άλλα] φεστιβάλ, μουσική, χορός, φαγητό, κινηματογράφος), περιοδικά, λογοτεχνία, αυτοβιογραφία, ποίηση, ντοκιμαντέρ, συλλογικά και προσωπικά αφηγήματα ταυτότητας/υποκειμενικότητας, πολιτισμικός συγκερασμός· υλική κουλτούρα, μουσειακές αναπαραστάσεις του παρελθόντος. Αφηγήματα φύλου και σεξουαλικότητας. Θεσμοί και ζητήματα φύλου. «Μεγάλα» και «μικρά» αφηγήματα. Λόγος περί αναπαραγωγής της ταυτότητας, το ελληνοαμερικανικό μέλλον.

(2) Οργανώσεις, Θεσμοί (Organizations, Institutions)

(Bibliography and archival resources, YA curator)

Θεσμικές και συλλογικές εκφράσεις ταυτότητας (The Association of Greek American Professional Women [AGAPW], The Hellenic American Neighborhood Action Committee [HANAC], ΑΧΕΠΑ, τοπικά σωματεία, National Hellenic Initiative, American Hellenic Institute, Hellenic American National Council, The Washington OXI Day Foundation, American Hellenic Council of California, Σύλλογος Νομοταγών Πολιτών, GOYA, Φιλόπτωχος, επαγγελματικές οργανώσεις, Εταιρεία Νεοελληνικών Σπουδών). «Μεγάλα» και «μικρά» αφηγήματα. Θεσμοί και ζητήματα φύλου και σεξουαλικότητας.

(3) Θρησκεία (Religion)

(Bibliography and archival resources, YA curator)

Ορθοδοξία (ιστορία, πολιτισμικές και θεσμικές αλλαγές, ακτιβισμός), κοινότητες, Ορθοδοξία και Ελληνισμός/ελληνική ταυτότητα, θέση γυναικών, εκκλησία και σεξουαλικότητα, σχέση με Προτεσταντισμό, Εβραϊκός Ελληνισμός, μη Ορθόδοξες ταυτότητες, εκκοσμίκευση, παγκοσμιοποίηση.

(4) Εκπαίδευση (Education)

(Narrative, Bibliography and archival resources, NP curator)

Ιστορία και γλώσσα, αναπαραγωγή και αναθεώρηση, διδασκαλία (κοινοτικά σχολεία, προγράμματα νεοελληνικών σπουδών), ελληνοαμερικανικές σπουδές· νεοελληνικά προγράμματα σπουδών, Modern Greek Studies Association, αρχαιοελληνικό φαινόμενο (παιδεία, ταυτότητα), προσωπικότητες των γραμμάτων και της επιστήμης (George Nicholas Papanikolaou, Σοφοκλής, Δερτούζος).

(5) Δημόσιοι και Ιδιωτικοί Χώροι (Public and Private Spaces)

(Narrative, bibliography and archival resources, NP curator)

Σπίτι (σαν ιδιοκτησία, σαν έκφραση και ελληνικής και αμερικανικής ταυτότητας, συμπεριλαμβανομένης και της πολιτισμικής αναπαραγωγής), χώροι εργασίας (εθνοτικοί και Αμερικανικοί), μουσεία, φεστιβάλ, παρελάσεις, αρχεία, ελληνοαμερικανικές σπουδές στο πανεπιστήμιο.

(6) Αμερικανική Λαϊκή Κουλτούρα (U.S. Folk and Popular Culture)

(Narrative, bibliography and archival resources, NP curator)

Βιομηχανία θεάματος και διασκέδασης, κινηματογράφος, μουσική, μόδα, σπορτς.

(7) Πολιτικές Ταυτότητες (Political Identities)

(Bibliography and archival resources, YA curator)

Σχίσμα Βενιζελικών και Βασιλικών, υπηκοότητα, ταυτότητες και ψυχρός πόλεμος, αριστερά, συνδικαλισμός, κίνημα δικαιωμάτων (διαφυλετικές σχέσεις και ακτιβισμός), πολιτική πολιτισμικών αφηγημάτων, πολιτικός ακτιβισμός και ιστορική πατρίδα, φεμινισμός, εκλογική συμπεριφορά, πολιτικές προσωπικότητες.

(8) Ίχνη και Σιωπές (Traces and Silences)

(Bibliography and archival resources, YA curator)

Καθιστούμε ορατές περιθωριακές και ανένταχτες πολιτικές και πολιτισμικές εκφράσεις· ανέχεια, μη κανονιστικές ταυτότητες (σεξουαλικές, ιδεολογικές), ριζοσπαστισμός, εργένηδες, μεικτοί γάμοι τις πρώτες δεκαετίες του εικοστού αιώνα, διαφυλετικές σχέσεις, διαφυλετικοί γάμοι, δεύτερη γενιά γυναικών, μετανάστες και παρανομία, παράνομες υιοθεσίες, καλλιτέχνες, πολιτικά καταδιωγμένοι Ελληνοαμερικανοί, απελάσεις πολιτικά αντιφρονούντων, εκ-κεντρικοί πανεπιστημιακοί, διανοούμενοι, και καλλιτέχνες, εσωτερικές διακρίσεις μεταξύ Ελλήνων και Ελληνορθοδόξων, εσωτερική εκμετάλλευση, λογοτεχνία σε τουρκική γλώσσα με ελληνικούς χαρακτήρες, εθνότητα σε αγροτικές περιοχές.

(c) Narratives for each Historical Period and Corresponding Expressive Domains (includes audiovisual and archival material as well as exhibit objects)

• Mass Immigration (1890s–WWI) (NP Curator)

• Nativism and Hundred Percent Americanism (post WWI–1920s) (YA Curator)

The political movement toward total Americanization and nativism worked dialectically to pressure immigrants toward assimilation. It culminated to the racist and exclusionary Immigration Act of 1924 or Johnson–Reed Act (including the National Origins Act and Asian Exclusion Act), which severely restricted immigration from southeastern Europe.

In the 1910s and 1920s we witnessed the emergence of new forms of Greek Collective identity, some of which endure today (American Hellenism). The American Hellenic Progressive Educational Association AHEPA) was founded in 1922, to shortly be followed in the same year by the establishment of Greek American Progressive Association (GAPA).

Other nascent hyphenated (Greek American) identities developed too, notably The Greek American National Union (1916) (See Yannis Papadopoulos in bibliography). All-in-all, the encounter of Greek immigrants with the early American modernity resulted in several new, and often conflicting collective identities, which fractured Greek immigrant communities. The Greek American Progressive Association (GAPA) advocated the retention of Greek language and culture and was formed to counter-act AHEPA’s hyper-assimilationism. (For the purpose of an exhibit, legendary were GAPA’s musical bands and picnics, as well as AHEPA’s public parades and official visits to Greece).

Nativism posed an immediate threat to immigrants both at a symbolic and material level: immigrants were denigrated as inferior in the public [the infamous “No Rats no Greeks allowed at the front of restaurant] and were attacked (Public and Private Spaces). It posed an immediate threat on Greeks businesses, and its specter of violence resulted in a new institutional identity (American Hellenic Progressive Education/AHEPA) (Organizations, Institutions). AHEPA utilized parades and meetings with the American political and civic elite to systematically cultivate a new public image, that of the Americanized, respectable immigrant (Public and Private Spaces), the American Hellene. These were performances of assimilation. AHEPA did not cut ties from Greece, it organized multiple trips of its members (Diaspora and Ethnic Expressions) (what role did AHEPA seek to play vis a vis Greece these formative years?). AHEPA promoted philanthropy, and founded the sanatorium for Greeks in Albuquerque, New Mexico (Public and Private Spaces). [2022 addendum: for AHEPA’s history, see Alexander Kitroeff, 2022.]

The Immigration Act of 1924 pressured Greek Americans to seek citizenship while it triggered a wave of returns to Greece (Diaspora and Ethnic Expressions). One must note the role of immigrant media in countering nativism and mediating the naturalization of immigrants as Americans (Organizations, Institutions). It is also important to note that the AHEPA narrative equated Americanism with Hellenism, producing a new “white” political identity for the purpose of acceptance (Political Identities). AHEPA also emulated the rituals and paraphernalia of American fraternal orders (US Folk and Popular Culture).

Hostility between middle-class and working-class Greek immigrants (see the work of Gregory Peck).

Make connections with the domains of religion (communities as mutually supporting institutions) and Greek education (preservation of ethnic identity within the context of anti-foreignism).

Note the gender dimension in negotiating nativism – it is likely that men and women experienced nativism differently (see Helen Papanikolas’s work about women’s experience).

Traces and Silences: Issues during that era that have been underresearched or not researched at all: Greek immigrant marriages with “non-Greek” women; relations with African Americans and other vulnerable groups; how did immigrant children experience nativism? silence of parents regarding KKK violence. Not much is written about GAPA. There have been mentions of immigrants who were members of both AHEPA and GAPA.

[2022 addendum: Make violence a theme; How was it exercised? How was it experienced? Long term effects on Greek American self-representations]

Audiovisual and Archival material:

Ahepa webpage

Marios Stephanides Archive (AHEPA)

Magazine AHEPAN

AHEPA visit to Greece

AHEPA fb page

AHEPA Convention 1938

The History of AHEPA

Ahepa parading in the Greek Independence Day Celebration, 1929 (Detroit). Rare footage

Song, «Δεν τον θέλω τον Αχεπα»

Acropolis of America

Μηχανή του Χρόνου: 1) Οι Έλληνες που ξενιτεύτηκαν στην Αμερική και ο αγώνας για επιβίωση.

2) “Eίναι οι Έλληνες λευκοί;” To ακραίο ρατσιστικό ερώτημα για τους μετανάστες στην Αμερική. Το “πόρισμα” των ανθρωπολόγων και το κυνήγι της Κου Κλουξ Κλαν.

Exhibit Objects: Costumes and paraphernalia (AHEPA, GAPA), musical instruments (GAPA was renowned for its bands; musical sheets), diaries, newspapers, magazines, books, letters; icons and other material culture that immigrants brought with them. Also, Greek school related, textbooks (how did they discuss America?). Material culture they acquired in America for their own private uses but also to send to their families and relatives back home (see the work of Kostis Kourelis).

• Assimilation, Identity, World War II, Cold War (1920s-mid1960s) (NP Curator)

• American Multiculturalism (1965–present) (YA curator)

The Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965 (also known as Hart-Celler Act) removed racial and national barriers in immigration policy. It marked a radical shift from the Immigration Act of 1924 which had discriminated against non-northern Europeans. The policy had profound effects on the demographic makeup of American society, and it dovetails within a paradigm change in American society towards greater cultural inclusivity.

The State promoted this inclusivity in public institutions and generally in the public sphere, sanctioning (regulated) diversity in a series of formal and informal policies. An example of official legitimation of diversity is the Ethnic Heritage Studies Act which promoted the study and appreciation of the American students’ various ethnic heritages. It provided grants, for instance, to “develop curriculum materials for use in elementary and secondary schools which deal with the history, geography, society, economy, literature, art, music, drama, language, and general culture of the ethnic heritage or regional group of heritages with which the project is concerned, and the contributions of that ethnic heritage or regional group of heritages to the American heritage”. This new conception of American society, often referred to as American multiculturalism, brought about a new conception of American identity, encouraging individuals to explore and express their ethnic heritages.

American multiculturalism legitimized Greek American identity in the public sphere, widened the visibility of Greek American culture, fostered institutional growth, and enabled new institutions. Events such as ethnic festivals, cultural products like documentaries broadcast on American television (U.S. Folk and Popular Culture), and educational institutions like Modern Greek studies programs (Education) brought the American and Greek American public closer to Greek culture (Public and Private Spaces).

The advent of multiculturalism, and particularly the Civil Rights Movement, signaled the active political involvement of the Greek Orthodox Church (Religion) in American society. Greek Americans and the Civil Rights Movement. Archbishop Iakovos’s (Political Identities) march along Martin Luther King Jr. represents a much heralded (though controversial at the time in the Greek American community) historical movement.

The Americanization of the Greek Orthodox Church continues, while the conflicts between Greek Americans and newly arrived Greek immigrants is also an issue in several communities (see the work of Anna Karpathakis).

The era is defined by increased diasporic expressions. One of the most important events of the era is the Greek American political mobilization on behalf of Greece in response to the Turkish invasion of Cyprus (Diaspora and Ethnic Expressions). (See the work of Alexander Kitroeff). While politicians of Greek descent acquire national visibility (Tsongas, Sarbanes), with the notable example of Michael Dukakis who presidential bid (Political Identities). (See Dukakis’s biographical profile in Moskos’ Struggle and Success, third edition)

The American emphasis on roots sparks (and legitimizes) an increased interest among Greek Americans in Greece (Diaspora and Ethnic Expressions). What is notable is that not only professional authors and writers but educated Greek Americans write books about their travels to Greece as well as memoirs of growing up Greek in the United States (Public and Private). See the work of Yiorgos Kalogeras and, later on, Anastasia Christou, Evangelia Kindinger, and Theodora Patrona.

The genre of Growing up Greek is utilized also in stand-up comedy and even American popular culture (like the MTV Program Growing up Greek) (Public and Private Spaces; US Folk and Popular Culture).

The film My Big Fat Greek Wedding dramatizes it (US Folk and Popular Culture).

Public schools encourage students to explore their heritages, undertake “roots” projects (Public and Private Spaces; Education).

Greek American authors enjoy national (American) visibility: See authors Harry Mark Petrakis, Helen Papanikolas; later the fiction of George Pelecanos (US Folk and Popular Culture). Poets George Economou, Nikos Samaras, Olga Broumas, among others. Jeffrey Eugenides’s Middlesex wins the Pulitzer Prize for fiction. Translations of Greek American literature in Greek.

There is a great deal of interest in ethnic history, let us note that museums (both with local and national scope) contribute to the visibility of Greek America in the public sphere (Diaspora and Ethnic Expressions; Public and Private Spaces). See the work of Helen Papanikolas and Dan Georgakas (Education). There is a revisionist current in Greek American historiography and an interest in immigrant subjectivities (I. Laliotou); an attempt to critique canonical historiography (Y. Anagnostou) and “excavate” silenced and marginalized pasts (Dan Georgakas; Kostis Karpozilos).

Greek Americans fund endowed chairs in Modern Greek Studies, and the Modern Greek Studies Association (MGSA) is established (Public and Private Spaces; Education; Organizations, Institutions). Within the MGSA interest in Greek American studies intensifies in the late 1990s, see particularly the Greek American Studies Resource Portal and the Greek American Resource Archive. Regarding journals dedicated to Greek American studies see (the now defunct) Journal of the Hellenic Diaspora (issues available online, open access). See also Journal of Modern Greek Studies, Journal of Modern Hellenism, The AHIF Policy Journal, and more recently, Ergon: Greek/American Arts and Letters (Education).

There is an increasing scholarly interest in Greek America, though the future of Greek American studies remains an issue of ongoing concern (see Y. Anagnostou; D. Georgakas).

Traces and Silences: Protestant Greeks, Greeks and the Civil Rights Movement, Interracial Relations, Same sex relations, Inter-ethnic and Inter-racial Marriages, Assimilation into African American Culture (the case of Johnny Otis). Ethnicity in the suburbs, the third generation and beyond. The other Greek/American Diaspora (Greek American artists and authors who live in Greece and write in English [or connect with American culture]), families of Greek Americans in Greece. Working-class Greek Americans; poverty and Greek Americans. Greek American community and social services (HANAC); intra-family conflicts. Regional particularities (Utah, emphasis in regional memory, intermarriage with Mormons)

The feminist movement; the LGBTQ movement and Greek Americans.

Representations of Greek American women.

[2022 addendum: the novel Let Me Explain You by Annie Liontas generated conversation about gender and sexuality (Artemis Leontis). See also Joanna Eleftheriou.]

Audiovisual and Archival material:

• Maria Iliou. “The Journey: The Greek American Dream.” 2007.

• “Hometown Stories: The Greek-Americans of Charlotte.” PBS, WTVI Charlotte. Youtube. 2008.

• Utah’s Greek Americans (Documentary)

• A Village in Baltimore: Images of Greek American Women

Stand Up Comedy, Basile, (there has been a proliferation of stand-up comedy, an underresearched topic)

The Hellenic Cultural Museum, (Salt Lake City, Utah)


Iakovos and Martin Luther King

Documentary on Iakovos


My Big Fat Greek Wedding (2002) (inter-cultural marriage) and My Big Fat Greek Wedding II (2016)

My Life in Ruins (2009), (Greek American return to Greece)

Achilles’ Love (2000) (inter-cultural marriage)

Do You Wanna Dance? (2006) (inter-cultural marriage; what does it mean to be Greek Orthodox)

A great number of Greek American cultural expressions (festivals, parades, school celebrations) are available on youtube

Objects: Costumes (festivals, Greek parades, Greek independence day celebrations); books and journals (Greek language schools, academic journals/Journal of the Hellenic Diaspora, special issues on Greek America, (de)kata, the Charioteer); newspapers and magazines; ethnic commodities (souvenirs, t-shirts sold in Greek festivals); home decoration items; paintings and other art work produced by Greek American artists; family heirlooms and their changing meaning (see Artemis Leontis on embroideries); musical instruments. Posters advertising Greek Festivals.

• Globalization and Diaspora (Collapse of the Soviet Union–present) (YA Curator)

Since the collapse of the Soviet Union there has been an increasing interest in diasporas as a resource for global economic growth and geopolitical stability. Governments and financial institutions actively promote transnational flows of money, professional expertise, and ideas. The Greek government is participating in this process while Greek diaspora initiatives have been developing in the context of the Greek economic crisis.

The national visibility of Greek America intensifies as American institutions (Television/PBS, publishers) produce documentaries and publish literature and poetry.

Intensification in transnational studies. Greek Americans returning to the historical homeland (see work of Anastasia Christou and Russell King; film, My Life in Ruins, see Y. Anagnostou). American Playhouse, My Palikari (TV).

The diaspora’s engagement with Greece involves the production of documentaries What it Means to be Greek, organizations such as the global Hellenic Initiative to promote philanthropy and entrepreneurship in Greece (Organizations, Institutions). The internet has been the primary venue to disseminate these initiatives while a number of events fostering these goals are organized both in Greece and the United States (Public and Private Spaces). At the same time, Greek America has intensified institutional efforts to preserve Greek identity among the youth. College study abroad Programs have been instrumental in this initiative which is promoted by U.S. Modern Greek Studies Programs. The National Hellenic Society has been formed for this purpose (Public and Private Spaces; Education; Organizations and Institutions).

The internet offers a variety of resources that inform Greek Americans about Greek American and Greek culture. See for instance, Windy City coming from Chicago, My parea. Also, historical societies establish facebook pages (see for instance, Greek Historical Society of the San Francisco Bay Area.

Professional societies also proliferate, see for instance the Hellenic American Society of California

There is a proliferation of blogs too (for a list of resources and blogs see, The Greek American Resource Portal)

The national visibility of Greek America continues. Note the PBS documentary “The Greek Americans,” and authors like Annie Liontas. Note the controversy on how U.S. popular culture (MTV) portrays Greek Americans (Public and Private Spaces) (see Anagnostou).

Parallel to these processes we witness an increased academic and institutional interest in the diaspora (Education) as well as local initiatives to preserve Greek culture in the United States (cosmos Philly).

Lobby initiatives continue, see the American Hellenic Institute and Hellenic American Leadership Council in particular (Public and Private Spaces; Organizations and Institutions; Political Identities)

Greek American organizations, academics, and intellectuals (see G. Kourvetaris, D. Georgakas) and organizations (American Hellenic Institute) express concern about the future of Greek identity in the United States and undertake a number of initiatives to foster Greek identity among the youth. See the online initiative Got Greek: The Next Generation Initiative and the College study abroad program sponsored by the National Hellenic Society (see below for link) (Education; Public and Private Spaces; Organizations and Institutions; Diaspora and Ethnic Expressions).

[2022 addendum: See edited volume on the future of Hellenism by the American Hellenic Institute; see work on Cultural Policy]

Traces and Silences: Because diaspora narratives privilege successful individuals there is little attention in how individuals from the lower socio-economic strata negotiate their ethnic identities. Diaspora narratives privilege the notion of the citizen-subject along philanthropy and entrepreneurial initiatives there is little attention as to how the social structure produces inequalities.

[2022 addendum: Greek Americans and the Greek Economic Crisis; the making of global Greek identity/branding identity as philotimo.]

Audiovisual and Archival material:

National Hellenic Society

National Hellenic Initiative

International Diaspora Engagement Alliance

Documentaries, Greeks Gone West

[2022 addendum: Note about post-2017 bibliographies and archives: for annual bibliographies, see Ergon: Greek American Arts and Letters ( The Greek American Studies Resource Portal keeps updating its resources (including the addition of Steve Frangos archive). See the Greek American Resources Archive (MGSA, For additional archival material see

See also, ].

Cover Image Credits: DRIMMI's logo was designed by Post-Spectacular Office, a narrative-driven design office based in Thessaloniki, Greece.